Information on

Two Important

AIPAC-Sponsored
Congressional Bills
Relating to Iran

 


 

Contents

 

Introductory Information from AIPAC

 

Summary of House Congressional Resolution #362

(221 co-sponsors as of July 1, 2008, including 1 non-voting rep from PR)

 

Letter sent to Representatives asking for Co-sponsors

            (From Gary L. Ackerman and Mike Pence)

 

Text of House Congressional Resolution #362

 

Summary of Senate Resolution #580

            (33 co-sponsors as of July 1, 2008)

 

Text of Senate Resolution #580

 

FAQ on “The Iranian Threat” (Questions and Answers by AIPAC)

 

U.S. Must Do More to Prevent Nuclear-Armed Iran

            (Memo from AIPAC to provide background, June 2008)

 

List of 221 House Co-sponsors of HR #362 as of July 1, 2008

            (Includes 1 non-voting Representative from Puerto Rico; also)
           includes one Representative from Massachusetts, Barney Frank)

 

List of 33 Senate Co-sponsors of Senate Resolution #580

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introductory Information from AIPAC

 

Stop Iran’s Nuclear Program


Members of the House and Senate have introduced resolutions (H. Con. Res. 362 and S. Res. 580) calling on the administration to focus on the urgency of the Iranian nuclear threat and to impose tougher sanctions on Tehran. The resolutions, introduced in the House by Reps. Gary Ackerman (D-NY) and Mike Pence (R-IN) and in the Senate by Sens. Evan Bayh (D-IN) and John Thune (R-SD), urge the president to sanction Iran’s Central Bank and other international banks and energy companies investing in the country. They also demand that the United States lead an international effort to increase pressure on Iran by curtailing Iran’s ability to import refined petroleum products. Please urge your representatives to cosponsor this critical resolution.

 

Back to Contents

Home

 

 

Summary of HR #362

 

Bill Summary

AIPAC

American Israel Public Affairs Committee

 

June 2008

Resolution Calls for Tougher Sanctions on Iran

Members of the House have introduced a resolution (H. Con. Res. 362) declaring that Iran’s illicit nuclear program constitutes a threat to America’s national security that must be dealt with urgently, calling on the president to impose tough sanctions on Tehran. The resolution, introduced by Reps. Gary Ackerman (D-NY) and Mike Pence (R-IN), says Iran’s acquisition of a nuclear weapon would destabilize the strategic balance in the Middle East and undermine the global nonproliferation regime. The resolution also states explicitly that nothing in it should be construed as authorizing the use of force against Iran. Sens. Evan Bayh (D-IN) and John Thune (R-SD) have introduced a similar resolution (S. Res. 580) in the Senate.

KEY PROVISIONS:

·         Declares that preventing Iran from acquiring a nuclear weapons capability—through all appropriate economic, political and diplomatic means—is vital to the national security interests of the United States and must be dealt with urgently.

·         Urges the president to impose sanctions on:

o        Iran’s Central Bank and any Iranian bank engaged in proliferation activities or the support of terrorist groups;

o        International banks that conduct transactions with outlawed Iranian banks;

o        Energy companies investing $20 million or more in Iran’s petroleum or natural gas sector;

o        All companies conducting business with Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), which is a key part of the country’s military and is responsible for carrying out terrorist acts throughout the world. The IRGC also controls 30 percent of the Iranian economy.

·         Demands the president lead an international effort to cut off exports of refined petroleum to Iran.

·         Urges the president to support the legitimate governments in the Middle East against Iranian efforts to destabilize them and to make clear to Iran that America will protect its national security interests in the Middle East.

 

 

Back to Contents

Home

 

Letter to Representatives asking for Co-sponsors

Take a Stand Against Iranian Bullying:
Co-Sponsor H. Con. Res. 362

May 28, 2008

Dear Colleague:

We write to encourage you to join us as sponsors of H.Con.Res.362, a resolution expressing the sense of Congress regarding the threat posed to international peace, stability in the Middle East, and the vital national security interests of the United States by Iran's pursuit of nuclear weapons and regional hegemony.

As the Chairman and Ranking Minority Member of the House Subcommittee on the Middle East and South Asia, we have been monitoring with growing concern Iran's manifest efforts to destabilize and reshape the Middle East, to block efforts to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict and, worst of all, to acquire the means to produce enriched uranium, the key to producing nuclear weapons.

Iran is backing and arming militias and terrorists fighting the United States and our allies in both Iraq and Afghanistan; it is the proud patron of both the Hamas take-over in Gaza and the Hezbollah insurrection against the Lebanese government; it is the major funding source for numerous terrorist groups and, increasingly, its fellow state-sponsor of terrorism, Syria; it is supporting Islamist sectarian groups in places like Kuwait, Bahrain and Yemen; and, it is radically reorienting regional security calculations (e.g., the sudden interest among Sunni Arabs in commercial nuclear power).

In various public statements, Iranian leaders proudly take ownership of these policies and promise more of the same. Meeting the threat posed by Iran is an urgent requirement for the United States, and a challenge that will require us to work closely with the international community, and especially with partners in the Middle East. Though the stakes are high and time is short, the resolution is explicit in stating that meeting the challenge from Iran must be done using all appropriate political, diplomatic and economic levers, and that "nothing in this resolution shall be construed as an authorization of the use of force against Iran."

The threat from Iran is real and growing, and Congress needs to sound the alarm to ensure that today's efforts by Iran at subversion and proliferation do not, tomorrow, become the seeds of new and more terrible conflict in the Middle East. Please contact Dalis Blumenfeld (dalis.blumenfeld@mail.house.gov) at the House Subcommittee on the Middle East and South Asia at 202-225-3345 if you'd like to be added as a sponsor.

Sincerely,

s/ Gary L. Ackerman                               s/ Mike Pence

Chairman                                                Ranking Minority Member

House Subcommittee on the                     House Subcommittee on the

Middle East & South Asia                        Middle East & South Asia

 


 

Back to Contents

Home

 

Text of House Resolution #362

 


110th CONGRESS

2d Session

H. CON. RES. 362

Expressing the sense of Congress regarding the threat posed to international peace,
stability in the Middle East, and the vital national security interests of the United States
by Iran's pursuit of nuclear weapons and regional hegemony, and for other purposes.

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES


May 22, 2008

Mr. ACKERMAN (for himself and Mr. PENCE) submitted the following concurrent resolution; which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs

CONCURRENT RESOLUTION

Expressing the sense of Congress regarding the threat posed to international peace, stability in the Middle East, and the vital national security interests of the United States by Iran's pursuit of nuclear weapons and regional hegemony, and for other purposes.

Whereas Iran is a party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), has foresworn the acquisition of nuclear weapons by ratification of the NPT, and is legally bound to declare and place all its nuclear activity under constant monitoring by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA);

Whereas for nearly 20 years, in clear contravention of its explicit obligations under the NPT, Iran operated a covert nuclear program until it was revealed by an Iranian opposition group in 2002;

Whereas the IAEA has confirmed such illicit covert nuclear activities as the importation of uranium hexafluoride, construction of a uranium enrichment facility, experimentation with plutonium, importation of centrifuge technology, construction of centrifuges, and importation of designs to convert highly enriched uranium gas into metal and shape it into the core of a nuclear weapon;

Whereas Iran continues to expand the number of centrifuges at its enrichment facility, as made evident by its announced intention to begin installation of 6,000 advanced centrifuges to enrich uranium, in defiance of binding United Nations Security Council resolutions demanding Iran suspend enrichment activities;

Whereas the November 2007 National Intelligence Estimate reported that Iran was secretly working on the design and manufacture of a nuclear warhead until at least 2003, but that Iran could have enough highly enriched uranium for a nuclear weapon as soon as late 2009;

Whereas an Iranian nuclear weapons capability would pose a grave threat to international peace and security by fundamentally altering and destabilizing the strategic balance in the Middle East, and severely undermining the global nonproliferation regime;

Whereas Iran's overt sponsorship of several terrorist groups, including Hamas and Hezbollah, and its close ties to Syria raise the possibility that Iran would share its nuclear materials and technology with others;

Whereas Iran continues to develop ballistic missile technology and is pursuing the capability to field intercontinental ballistic missiles, a delivery system suited almost exclusively to nuclear weapons payloads;

Whereas Iranian leaders have repeatedly called for the destruction of Israel, a major non-North Atlantic Treaty Organization ally, and a member of the United Nations;

Whereas the United States, Russia, China, France, the United Kingdom, and Germany have offered, and continue to offer, to negotiate a significant package of economic, diplomatic, and security incentives if Iran complies with the United Nations Security Council's resolutions demanding that Iran suspend uranium enrichment;

Whereas Iran has consistently refused such offers;

Whereas as a result of Iran's failure to comply with the mandates of the United Nations Security Council, taken under Chapter VII of the United Nations' Charter, the international community has imposed limited sanctions over the past 2 years that have begun to have an impact on the Iranian economy;

Whereas Iran's rapid development of its nuclear capabilities is outpacing the slow ratcheting up of economic and diplomatic sanctions;

Whereas Iran has used its banking system, including the Central Bank of Iran, to support its proliferation efforts and its assistance to terrorist groups, leading the Department of Treasury to designate 4 large Iranian banks proliferators and supporters of terrorism;

Whereas Iran's support for Hezbollah has enabled that group to wage war against the Government and people of Lebanon, leading to its political domination of that country;

Whereas Iran's support for Hamas has enabled it to illegally seize control of Gaza from the Palestinian Authority, and to continuously bombard Israeli civilians with rockets and mortars;

Whereas Iran continues to provide training, weapons, and financial assistance to Shi'a militants inside of Iraq and antigovernment warlords in Afghanistan;

Whereas those Shi'a militant groups and Afghan warlords use Iranian training, weapons, and financing to attack American and allied forces trying to support the legitimate Governments of Iraq and Afghanistan;

Whereas Iran is further destabilizing the Middle East by underwriting a massive rearmament campaign by Syria;

Whereas through these efforts, Iran seeks to establish regional hegemony, threatens longstanding friends and allies of the United States in the Middle East, and endangers vital American national security interests; and

Whereas nothing in this resolution shall be construed as an authorization of the use of force against Iran: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), That Congress--

(1) declares that preventing Iran from acquiring a nuclear weapons capability, through all appropriate economic, political, and diplomatic means, is vital to the national security interests of the United States and must be dealt with urgently;

(2) urges the President, in the strongest of terms, to immediately use his existing authority to impose sanctions on--

        (A) the Central Bank of Iran and any other Iranian bank engaged in proliferation activities
              or the support of terrorist groups;

        (B) international banks which continue to conduct financial transactions with proscribed
              Iranian banks;

        (C) energy companies that have invested $20,000,000 or more in the Iranian petroleum
              or natural gas sector in any given year since the enactment of the Iran Sanctions Act
              of 1996; and

        (D) all companies which continue to do business with Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard
              Corps;

(3) demands that the President initiate an international effort to immediately and dramatically increase the economic, political, and diplomatic pressure on Iran to verifiably suspend its nuclear enrichment activities by, inter alia, prohibiting the export to Iran of all refined petroleum products; imposing stringent inspection requirements on all persons, vehicles, ships, planes, trains, and cargo entering or departing Iran; and prohibiting the international movement of all Iranian officials not involved in negotiating the suspension of Iran's nuclear program; and

(4) urges the President to lead a sustained, serious, and forceful effort at regional diplomacy to support the legitimate governments in the region against Iranian efforts to destabilize them, to reassure our friends and allies that the United States supports them in their resistance to Iranian efforts at hegemony, and to make clear to the Government of Iran that the United States will protect America's vital national security interests in the Middle East.

 

Back to Contents
Home

 

 

 

 

Summary of Senate Resolution #580

 

 

 

 

Bill Summary

AIPAC

American Israel Public Affairs Committee

June 2008

Resolution Calls for Tougher Sanctions on Iran

Members of the Senate have introduced a resolution (S. Res. 580) declaring that Iran’s illicit nuclear program constitutes a threat to America’s national security that must be dealt with urgently, calling on the president to impose tough sancctions on Tehran. The resolution, introduced by Sens. Evan Bayh (D­IN) and John Thune (R-SD), says Iran’s acquisition of a nuclear weapon would destabilize the strategic balance in the Middle East and undermine the global nonproliferation regime. It also states explicitly that nothing in it should be construed as authorizing the use of force against Iran. Reps. Gary Ackerman (D-NY) and Mike Pence (R-IN) have introduced a similar resolution (H. Con Res. 362) in the House.

KEY PROVISIONS:

·         Declares that preventing Iran from acquiring a nuclear weapons capability—through all appropriate economic, political and diplomatic means—is vital to the national security interests of the United States and must be dealt with urgently.

·         Urges the president to impose sanctions on:

o        Iran’s Central Bank and any Iranian bank engaged in proliferation activities or the support of terrorist groups;

o        International banks that conduct transactions with outlawed Iranian banks;

o        Energy companies investing $20 million or more in Iran’s petroleum or natural gas sector;

o        All companies conducting business with Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), which is a key part of the country’s military and is responsible for carrying out terrorist acts throughout the world. The IRGC also controls 30 percent of the Iranian economy.

·         Demands the president lead an international effort to cut off exports of refined petroleum to Iran.

·         Urges the president to support the legitimate governments in the Middle East against Iranian efforts to destabilize them and to make clear to Iran that America will protect its national security interests in the Middle East.

 

 

Back to Contents

Home

 

Text of Senate Resolution #580

 

Text of Legislation

SRES 580 IS

 

110th CONGRESS

2d Session

S. RES. 580

Expressing the sense of the Senate on preventing Iran from acquiring a nuclear weapons capability.
 

IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

June 2, 2008

 

Mr. BAYH (for himself, Mr. THUNE, and Mr. SMITH) submitted the following resolution; which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations
 

RESOLUTION

Expressing the sense of the Senate on preventing Iran from acquiring a nuclear weapons capability.

Whereas Iran is a party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, done at Washington, London, and Moscow July 1, 1968, and entered into force March 5, 1970 (commonly referred to as the `Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty') and, by ratifying the Treaty, has foresworn the acquisition of nuclear weapons;

Whereas Iran is legally bound to declare all its nuclear activity to the International Atomic Energy Agency and to place such activity under the constant monitoring of the Agency;

Whereas for nearly 20 years Iran had a covert nuclear program, until the program was revealed by an opposition group in Iran in 2002;

Whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency has confirmed that the Government of Iran has engaged in such covert nuclear activities as the illicit importation of uranium hexafluoride, the construction of a uranium enrichment facility, experimentation with plutonium, the importation of centrifuge technology and the construction of centrifuges, and the importation of the design to convert highly enriched uranium gas into a metal and to shape it into the core of a nuclear weapon, as well as significant additional covert nuclear activities;

Whereas the Government of Iran continues to expand the number of centrifuges at its enrichment facility and to enrich uranium in defiance of 3 binding United Nations Security Council resolutions demanding that Iran suspend its uranium enrichment activities;

Whereas the Government of Iran has announced its intention to begin the installation of 6,000 advanced centrifuges, which, when operational, will dramatically reduce the time it will take Iran to enrich uranium;

Whereas the 2007 National Intelligence Estimate reports that the Government of Iran was secretly working on the design and manufacture of a nuclear warhead until at least 2003 and that Iran could have enough highly enriched uranium for a nuclear weapon as early as late 2009;

Whereas allowing the Government of Iran to obtain a nuclear weapons capability would pose a grave threat to international peace and security;

Whereas allowing the Government of Iran to obtain a nuclear weapons capability would fundamentally alter and destabilize the strategic balance of power in the Middle East;

Whereas, if it were allowed to obtain a nuclear weapons capability, the Government of Iran could share its nuclear technology, raising the frightening prospect that terrorist groups and rogue regimes might possess nuclear weapons capabilities;

Whereas allowing the Government of Iran to obtain a nuclear weapons capability would severely undermine the global nuclear nonproliferation regime that, for more than 4 decades, has contained the spread of nuclear weapons;

Whereas it is likely that one or more Arab states would respond to Iran obtaining a nuclear weapons capability by following Iran's example, and several Arab states have already announced their intentions to pursue `peaceful nuclear' programs;

Whereas the spread of nuclear weapons capabilities throughout the Middle East would make the proliferation of nuclear weapons elsewhere around the globe much more likely;

Whereas allowing the Government of Iran to obtain a nuclear weapons capability would directly threaten Europe and ultimately the United States because Iran already has missiles that can reach parts of Europe and is seeking to develop intercontinental ballistic missiles;

Whereas the Government of Iran has repeatedly called for the elimination of our ally, Israel;

Whereas the Government of Iran has advocated that the United States withdraw its presence from the Middle East;

Whereas the United Nations Security Council has passed 3 binding resolutions under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter that impose sanctions on Iran for its failure to comply with the mandatory demand of the Security Council to suspend all uranium enrichment activity;

Whereas the United States, the Russian Federation, the People's Republic of China, France, the United Kingdom, and Germany have offered to negotiate a significant package of economic, diplomatic, and security incentives if Iran complies with the Security Council's demands to suspend uranium enrichment;

Whereas the Government of Iran has consistently refused such offers;

Whereas, as a result of the failure of the Government of Iran to comply with the Security Council resolutions, the international community began taking steps in 2006 that have begun to have an impact on the economy of Iran, but the rapid development of nuclear weapons capabilities by the Government of Iran is outpacing the slowly increasing economic and diplomatic sanctions on Iran;

Whereas the Government of Iran has used its banking system, including the Central Bank of Iran, to support its proliferation efforts and to assist terrorist groups;

Whereas, as a result of that use of Iran's banking system, the Secretary of the Treasury has designated 4 large Iranian banks as proliferators and supporters of terrorism and restricted the ability of those banks to conduct international financial transactions in United States dollars; and

Whereas Iran must import around 40 percent of its daily requirements for refined petroleum products: Now, therefore, be it


Back to Contents

Home

 

 

 

 

FAQs

 

AIPAC


The American Israel Public Affairs Committee

 

 

 

 

June 2008

The Iranian Threat

Iran has made significant progress in its ability to enrich uranium—the critical component for nuclear weapons—in direct defiance of three U.N Security Council resolutions. As the latest International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report makes clear, Iran continues to advance its enrichment efforts while denying international inspectors access to key nuclear facilities and failing to address concerns that it conducted studies on building nuclear warheads. In response to Iran’s nuclear pursuit, the United States has led international efforts to sanction Tehran as a way to press the regime to change course.

Q: Why is Iran a threat to the United States, Israel and other U.S. allies?

Text Box:  
A: A nuclear armed-Iran would pose a direct threat to U.S. national security interests, and fundamentally alter the strategic balance of the Middle East. Iran already can deploy a sizable force of increasingly sophisticated Shihab missiles that can hit Israel, U.S. forces in the region and some of America’s allies in Europe. During the next decade, Iran also may acquire intercontinental ballistic missiles capable of striking the United States.

An Iran with nuclear weapons would embolden the fundamentalist regime in Tehran to carry out its

radical foreign policy agenda by furthering its support for its terrorist allies. Iran is the world’s leading state sponsor of terrorism; it funds, trains and arms Hizballah, Hamas, Islamic Jihad and other terrorist groups.

Iran’s successful acquisition of nuclear weapons would likely mark the death knell of the global non­proliferation regime, and could touch off a regional nuclear-arms race among Middle Eastern countries, many of which already have expressed new interest in “peaceful” nuclear programs.

Q: What is the status of Iran’s nuclear program?

A: Iran is rapidly moving toward a nuclear weapons capability, aggressively pursuing a uranium enrichment program that could give the regime the ability to produce a nuclear weapon as early as late next year. The regime in Tehran is on the verge of mastering the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including

 

 

Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has repeatedly
called for the destruction of Israel and the United States.

 

 

the mining, conversion, enrichment and stockpiling of uranium that could ultimately form the cores of a nuclear weapons arsenal. According to the latest report from the IAEA, Iran is operating nearly 3,500 uranium centrifuges, or machines that rotate at supersonic speeds to enrich the uranium needed to produce fuel for nuclear reactors or bombs. Iran is in the process of installing an additional 2,500 centrifuges that, when operational, could produce enough highly enriched uranium for one to three nuclear weapons a year. At the same time, Iran is testing advanced P-2 centrifuges, which are capable of enriching uranium at two to five times the speed of older models.

Iran is also developing and deploying an increasingly advanced arsenal of long-range ballistic missiles ideal for delivering atomic warheads. In addition, the IAEA report said that Iran is continuing construction of the heavy-water production plant at Arak in direct violation of U.N. Security Council Resolutions 1737, 1747 and 1803.

Q: Can Iran’s civil nuclear program also be used as part of a nuclear weapons program?

A: Yes. Most of what the Iranian authorities describe as a peaceful program aimed at providing the oil and natural gas-rich nation with yet more energy resources is in fact perfectly suited to supplying the building blocks of a military nuclear arms stockpile. The low-enriched uranium that Iran is currently churning out with increasing efficiency at its Natanz nuclear plant—and perhaps at another hidden site—is purportedly for use in power reactors. Yet such uranium can be further purified into the highly enriched uranium needed for an atomic bomb with only minor modifications to the gas centrifuge cascades that the regime is installing at the site to amass fissile material.

The IAEA in a May 2008 report accused Iran of a willful lack of cooperation in answering questions about military activities related to its illicit nuclear program. The U.N.'s nuclear watchdog expressed “serious concern” over indications that the Iranian military has played a key role in the country's nuclear program and that its reseaarch had ventured into explosives, uranium processing and a missile warhead design — activities associated with nuclear weapons.

Likewise, the Iranian heavy-water reactor being built at Arak, and even the Russian-built reactor at Bushehr, can serve as the source for bomb-grade plutonium if Iran constructs a facility to extract this alternate fissile material from used reactor fuel—something well within the country’s technical capabilities. In fact, the International Atomic Energy Agency has reported evidence that Iran has experimented with plutonium separation.

By contrast, there is absolutely no visible evidence—such as power lines linking to the facility—that would indicate that Iran’s reactor at Bushehr is actually intended to produce electricity for civilian use.

Q: Does H. Con. Res. 362 increase the chances of going to war with Iran?

A: No. The resolution specifically states that nothing in the resolution shall be construed to be an authorization for military action. The resolutions say that one important tool—among others—that can be used to pressure the regime is an international campaign to cut off the sale of refined petroleum products to Iran, which has to import 40 percent of its gasoline and diesel fuel. The prohibition on exports envisioned in the resolutions constitutes an international ban on the sale of refined petroleum products to Iran, potentially through such institutions as the United Nations or the EU. The resolutions do not call for a naval “blockade” or an international “embargo.”

The sanctions called for in H. Con. Res. 362 and its Senate companion, S. Res. 580, are the best way to prevent Iran from acquiring a nuclear capability by avoiding military action. Meaningful economic sanctions stand a real chance of being effective. Given the alternatives of either acquiescing to an Iranian nuclear capability or striking Iran militarily—in the words of French President Nicolas Sarkozy, “Bomb Iran or Iran gets the bomb”—employing tough sanctions now makes eminent sense. It provides the best chance for avoiding the need to consider the use of force.

 


 

 

Q. Why is it important to cut off imports of refined petroleum to Iran?

Despite sitting on some of the largest oil reserves in the world, Iran has been forced to import 40 percent of its refined petroleum—gasoline and diesel—because of a lack of investment in its oil refining infrastructure. The high cost of importing gasoline, combined with large price subsidies given to Iranian citizens, has forced Irran to ration gasoline. The regime’s decision last year to ration gasoline led to protests against Ahmadinejad. These protests included Iranians taking to the streets to burn gas stations. Limiting the sale of gasoline to Iran will severely impact Iran’s economy and could lead to dramatically greater domestic pressure on the regime to change course.

 

 


  

Iran is extending the reach of its ballistic missile arsenal
as it continues to advance its uranium enrichment efforts.

 

 

 

Q: Doesn’t the imposition of economic sanctions on Iran harden its position?

A: The United States and the international community believe that increasing the economic pressure on Iran while at the same time holding out real economic and political incentives presents the best approach to convince Iran to halt its drive for a nuclear weapons capability. While sanctions have not yet changed Iranian behavior, they have significantly increased the time Tehran needs to achieve a nuclear capability, and have raised regime costs of pursuing this program to the regime.

Were it not for sanctions, Iran would most likely already have a nuclear weapons capability. By delaying the

time, sanctions keep open the possibility of achieving a change in Iran’s nuclear ambitions.

Q: Is the Iranian regime susceptible to economic pressure to stop its nuclear program?

A: The Iranian regime’s weakest point is its economy, which is highly dependent on its petroleum and natural gas sector. As recent protests and criticism of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad make clear, the Iranian regime is experiencing open signs of public dissatisfaction. Two thirds of Iran’s population is under the age of 30, and many are either unemployed or underemployed. Inflation is rampant, while the mullahs are perceived as corrupt, enriching themselves at the expense of ordinary people. Targeting the lifeblood of Iran’s economy – which underpins the mullahs – could help crystallize the choice confronting the Iranian regime between pursuing nuclear weapons and a very bleak economic future.

Q: What impact have sanctions had on the Iranian regime to date?

A: Sanctions have not yet changed Iranian behavior, but they have significantly delayed the time Tehran needs to achieve a nuclear capability, thus raising the cost to the regime. Were it not for sanctions, Iran would most likely already have a nuclear weapons capability. By delaying the time, sanctions keep open the possibility of achieving a change in Iran’s nuclear ambitions.

U.S. and U.N. sanctions have been successful in largely cutting off the Iranian financial system from the outside world, making Iranian operations costly and time consuming for international companies.

 


 

 

Scores of international banks, unwilling to risk heavy fines and the possible loss of access to U.S. financial markets, have ceased or limited transactions with Iran.

The threat of U.S. sanctions on firms doing business in Iran’s energy sector has limited Iran’s ability to attract much-needed foreign investment. The lack of investment has led to a dramatic decrease in the amount of oil Iran is able to export. Today, Iran pumps 40 percent less oil than it did 25 years ago, even though its population has doubled. Large liquefied natural gas export projects have fallen years behind schedule as foreign energy companies such as Total and Shell, as well as Malaysia's Petronas and Spain's Repsol, have delayed investments due to the cloud of sanctions hanging over Iran. Domestic Iranian companies lack the technology to develop much of Iran’s petroleum industry.

Q: Why don’t we just talk to Iran to solve the dispute over its nuclear program?

A: The United States and its allies have made repeated diplomatic efforts in recent years to reach out to Iran in the hope of solving a range of disputes. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice announced in May 2006 that the United States wouuld join multilateral talks with Iran if it met the Security Council’s requirement to suspend uranium enrichment. President George W. Bush has reiterated numerous times, including as recently as last month, that the dialogue offer remains on the table and that “there is a seat at the table for them [Iran] if they would verifiably suspend their enrichment.”

While Iran has proposed its own set of negotiations, it refuses to suspend its uranium enrichment program, a requirement of multiple United Nations Security Council resolutions. Entering into a dialogue before Iran has complied with U.N. resolutions and suspended its uranium enrichment could undermine Security Council decisions and allow Tehran to use the dialogue as a way to continue advancing its nuclear program. Iran used previous talks with the European Union to make significant advances in its nuclear program while staving off international sanctions.

 

 

Back to Contents

Home

 

 

BACKGROUND MEMO from AIPAC

 

MEMO

AIPAC

American Israel Public Affairs Committee
 

 

June 2008

U.S. Must Do More to Prevent Nuclear-Armed Iran

Iran poses a growing threat to the United States and our allies as it continues rapidly advancing toward a nuclear weapons capability. Sanctions are having an impact on Iran, but more needs to be done now to persuade Tehran to change course. The United States should fully utilize available economic, political, and diplomatic tools—including sanctioning Iran’s Central Bank and foreign companies investing in Iran’s oil sector. The United States should also lead an international effort to curtail Iran’s ability to import refined petroleum products.

Iran’s continued development of a nuclear weapons capability represents a threat to the United States and the international community.

·       Iran is rapidly moving toward a nuclear weapons capability, aggressively pursuing a uranium enrichment program that could give the regime the ability to produce a nuclear weapon as soon as the end of next year.

·       A nuclear-armed Iran would pose a direct threat to U.S. national security interests, and fundamentally alter the strategic balance of the Middle East.

·       Iran already can deploy a sizable force of increasingly sophisticated Shihab missiles that can hit Israel, U.S. forces in the region and America’s allies in Europe. During the next decade, Iran also may acquire intercontinental ballistic missiles capable of striking the United States itself.

·       Possessing nuclear weapons would embolden the fundamentalist regime in Tehran to carry out its radical foreign policy agenda and further support for its terrorist allies.

·       Iran’s acquisition of nuclear weapons would likely touch off a regional nuclear arms race among Middle Eastern countries, many of which already have expressed new interest in “peaceful” nuclear programs. This could well mark the death knell of the global non-proliferation regime, and make the world a much more dangerous place.

 

Iran continues to expand its uranium enrichment efforts at
its Natanz
nuclear facility.

 

U.S. and international sanctions on Iran’s energy and banking sectors are having an impact.

·       Unilateral U.S. sanctions have been successful in limiting Iran’s access to the international financial system, making trade and investment with Tehran more costly and time consuming.

·       The threat of U.S. sanctions on firms doing business in Iran’s energy sector, combined with the possibility of increased U.N. sanctions, has caused many foreign firms to postpone implementation of oil and gas agreements with Iran or to back away from potential new energy deals with Tehran.

·       As inflation has skyrocketed, a number of influential Iranian politicians have criticized Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinej ad’s mismanagement of the economy. Pressure from within Iran’s ruling elite has been mounting on Iranian Supreme Leader Khamenei to rein in Ahmadinejad.

The United States should sanction the Central Bank of Iran and any foreign company conducting business with Iranian entities under U.S. sanction.

·       The United States should sanction the Central Bank of Iran for its involvement in the funding of terrorism and the financing of Iran’s proliferation activities.

·       Sanctioning the Central Bank—Iran’s principal remaining link to the international banking system—would force most banks around the world from doing business with it, thus crippling what remains of Iran’s ability to do international business through banks.

·       The United States also should use existing authority to sanction foreign entities that continue to do business with the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and Iranian banks as a way to further isolate the regime from the international financial system.

·       The United States should not implement a nuclear cooperation agreement with Russia until Moscow consistently demonstrates its opposition to Iran’s efforts to achieve a nuclear weapons capability, including restricting Russian banks and energy companies from doing business in Iran.

The United States should ratchet up pressure on Iran’s energy sector, the lifeblood of its economy.

·       The United States should impose sanctions on companies that have invested more than $20 million in Iran’s energy sector in violation of the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA), originally passed in 1996.

·       Implementing existing sanctions would severely hamper Iran’s ability to attract the foreign investment desperately needed to modernize its aging energy infrastructure.

·       The United States also should lead an international campaign to prohibit the export to Iran of all refined petroleum products.

·       Despite possessing some of the largest oil reserves in the world, Iran has been forced to import 40 percent of its refined petroleum—gasoline and diesel fuel—because it lacks sufficient refining capability. The high cost of importing gasoline, combined with large price subsidies given to Iranian citizens, has forced Iran to ration gasoline.

·       Limiting Iran’s ability to import gasoline would have an immediate and severe impact on Iran’s economy, and dramatically increase pressure on the regime to change course.

 

 

Back to Contents

Home

 

 

 

 

221 House Co-sponsors of House Resolution #362 as of
July 1, 2008 (Includes 1 non-voting co-sponsor from
Puerto Rico)

 

   
   
Congressional Legislation - Search Results 
220 Co-sponsors as of July 1, 2008 (Plus 1 non-voting Representative from PR)
All Cosponsors from All States 
Bill Name: 'Expressing the sense of Congress regarding the threat posed to international peace, stability in the Middle East, and the vital national security interests of the United States by Iran's pursuit of nuclear weapons and regional hegemony, and for other purposes.' 
Bill Number: H.CON.RES.362 
Cosponsor? Cosponsor Name Cosponsor Date
Alabama 3
cosponsor
 
Jo Bonner (R 1st) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Michael Rogers (R 3rd) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Artur Davis (D 7th) 6/24/2008
Arizona 5
cosponsor
 
Rick Renzi (R 1st) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Trent Franks (R 2nd) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
John Shadegg (R 3rd) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Ed Pastor (D 4th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Harry Mitchell (D 5th) 6/5/2008
Arkansas 3
cosponsor
 
Marion Berry (D 1st) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
John Boozman (R 3rd) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Mike Ross (D 4th) 6/24/2008
California 18
cosponsor
 
Mike Thompson (D 1st) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
George Radanovich (R 19th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Jim Costa (D 20th) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Devin Nunes (R 21st) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
David Dreier (R 26th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Brad Sherman (D 27th) 6/5/2008
cosponsor
 
Adam Schiff (D 29th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Henry Waxman (D 30th) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Jane Harman (D 36th) 6/11/2008
cosponsor
 
Ed Royce (R 40th) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Gary Miller (R 42nd) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Joe Baca (D 43rd) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Dana Rohrabacher (R 46th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Loretta Sanchez (D 47th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
John Campbell (R 48th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Darrell Issa (R 49th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Brian Bilbray (R 50th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Bob Filner (D 51st) 6/26/2008
Colorado 4
cosponsor
 
Mark Udall (D 2nd) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Marilyn Musgrave (R 4th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Doug Lamborn (R 5th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Thomas Tancredo (R 6th) 6/4/2008
Connecticut 2
cosponsor
 
Joseph Courtney (D 2nd) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Christopher Shays (R 4th) 6/3/2008
Florida 17
cosponsor
 
F. Allen Boyd (D 2nd) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Corrine Brown (D 3rd) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Ginny Brown-Waite (R 5th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Cliff Stearns (R 6th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Gus Bilirakis (R 9th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Kathy Castor (D 11th) 6/26/2008
cosponsor
 
Adam Putnam (R 12th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Timothy Mahoney (D 16th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Kendrick Meek (D 17th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R 18th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Robert Wexler (D 19th) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Debbie Wasserman Schultz (D 20th) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Lincoln Diaz-Balart (R 21st) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Ron Klein (D 22nd) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Alcee Hastings (D 23rd) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Tom Feeney (R 24th) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Mario Diaz-Balart (R 25th) 6/24/2008
Georgia 11
cosponsor
 
Sanford Bishop (D 2nd) 6/26/2008
cosponsor
 
Lynn Westmoreland (R 3rd) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Hank Johnson (D 4th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
John Lewis (D 5th) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Tom Price (R 6th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
John Linder (R 7th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Jim Marshall (D 8th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Paul Broun (R 10th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Phil Gingrey (R 11th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
John Barrow (D 12th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
David Scott (D 13th) 6/3/2008
Illinois 13
cosponsor
 
Jesse Jackson (D 2nd) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Dan Lipinski (D 3rd) 6/12/2008
cosponsor
 
Rahm Emanuel (D 5th) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Peter Roskam (R 6th) 6/5/2008
cosponsor
 
Danny Davis (D 7th) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Janice Schakowsky (D 9th) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Mark Kirk (R 10th) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Jerry Weller (R 11th) 6/26/2008
cosponsor
 
Jerry Costello (D 12th) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Timothy Johnson (R 15th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Donald Manzullo (R 16th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Phil Hare (D 17th) 6/5/2008
cosponsor
 
John Shimkus (R 19th) 6/26/2008
Indiana 4
cosponsor
 
Peter Visclosky (D 1st) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Mark Souder (R 3rd) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Dan Burton (R 5th) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Mike Pence (R 6th) 5/22/2008
Iowa 2
cosponsor
 
Tom Latham (R 4th) 6/26/2008
cosponsor
 
Steve King (R 5th) 6/24/2008
Kansas 1
cosponsor
 
Jerry Moran (R 1st) 6/3/2008
Louisiana 3
cosponsor
 
Steve Scalise (R 1st) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Rodney Alexander (R 5th) 6/11/2008
cosponsor
 
Don Cazayoux (D 6th) 6/12/2008
Maine 2
cosponsor
 
Thomas Allen (D 1st) 6/11/2008
cosponsor
 
Michael Michaud (D 2nd) 6/10/2008
Maryland 5
cosponsor
 
C.A. Ruppersberger (D 2nd) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
John Sarbanes (D 3rd) 6/26/2008
cosponsor
 
Steny Hoyer (D 5th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Roscoe Bartlett (R 6th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Chris Van Hollen (D 8th) 6/24/2008
Massachusetts 1
cosponsor
 
Barney Frank (D 4th) 6/3/2008
Michigan 7
cosponsor
 
Peter Hoekstra (R 2nd) 6/11/2008
cosponsor
 
Dave Camp (R 4th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Tim Walberg (R 7th) 6/11/2008
cosponsor
 
Michael Rogers (R 8th) 6/12/2008
cosponsor
 
Joseph Knollenberg (R 9th) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Candice Miller (R 10th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Thaddeus McCotter (R 11th) 6/10/2008
Minnesota 2
cosponsor
 
John Kline (R 2nd) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Jim Ramstad (R 3rd) 6/10/2008
Mississippi 1
cosponsor
 
Bennie Thompson (D 2nd) 6/17/2008
Missouri 4
cosponsor
 
Wm. Lacy Clay (D 1st) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Russ Carnahan (D 3rd) 6/26/2008
cosponsor
 
Emanuel Cleaver (D 5th) 6/5/2008
cosponsor
 
Sam Graves (R 6th) 6/4/2008
Montana 1
cosponsor
 
Dennis Rehberg (R At-Large) 6/26/2008
Nebraska 3
cosponsor
 
Jeff Fortenberry (R 1st) 6/11/2008
cosponsor
 
Lee Terry (R 2nd) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Adrian Smith (R 3rd) 6/10/2008
Nevada 3
cosponsor
 
Shelley Berkley (D 1st) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Dean Heller (R 2nd) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Jon Porter (R 3rd) 6/4/2008
New Hampshire 1
cosponsor
 
Paul Hodes (D 2nd) 6/24/2008
New Jersey 9
cosponsor
 
Frank LoBiondo (R 2nd) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Jim Saxton (R 3rd) 6/5/2008
cosponsor
 
Christopher Smith (R 4th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Scott Garrett (R 5th) 6/26/2008
cosponsor
 
Frank Pallone (D 6th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Michael Ferguson (R 7th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Steven Rothman (D 9th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Rodney Frelinghuysen (R 11th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Albio Sires (D 13th) 6/12/2008
New York 18
cosponsor
 
Tim Bishop (D 1st) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Peter King (R 3rd) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Carolyn McCarthy (D 4th) 6/4/2008
sponsor
 
Gary Ackerman (D 5th) 5/22/2008
cosponsor
 
Joseph Crowley (D 7th) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Anthony Weiner (D 9th) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Edolphus Towns (D 10th) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Vito Fossella (R 13th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Carolyn Maloney (D 14th) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Eliot Engel (D 17th) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Nita Lowey (D 18th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Kirsten Gillibrand (D 20th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Michael McNulty (D 21st) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
John McHugh (R 23rd) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Michael Arcuri (D 24th) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Thomas Reynolds (R 26th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Brian Higgins (D 27th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Randy Kuhl (R 29th) 6/12/2008
North Carolina 7
cosponsor
 
Virginia Foxx (R 5th) 6/5/2008
cosponsor
 
Howard Coble (R 6th) 6/12/2008
cosponsor
 
Mike McIntyre (D 7th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Robin Hayes (R 8th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Patrick McHenry (R 10th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Heath Shuler (D 11th) 6/5/2008
cosponsor
 
Brad Miller (D 13th) 6/10/2008
Ohio 10
cosponsor
 
Steve Chabot (R 1st) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Jean Schmidt (R 2nd) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Jim Jordan (R 4th) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Charlie Wilson (D 6th) 6/12/2008
cosponsor
 
Stephanie Jones (D 11th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Patrick Tiberi (R 12th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Betty Sutton (D 13th) 6/5/2008
cosponsor
 
Steven LaTourette (R 14th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Tim Ryan (D 17th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Zack Space (D 18th) 6/24/2008
Oklahoma 4
cosponsor
 
John Sullivan (R 1st) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Dan Boren (D 2nd) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Frank Lucas (R 3rd) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Mary Fallin (R 5th) 6/17/2008
Pennsylvania 11
cosponsor
 
Robert Brady (D 1st) 6/3/2008
cosponsor
 
Jason Altmire (D 4th) 6/26/2008
cosponsor
 
Jim Gerlach (R 6th) 6/5/2008
cosponsor
 
Joe Sestak (D 7th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Bill Shuster (R 9th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Christopher Carney (D 10th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Allyson Schwartz (D 13th) 6/5/2008
cosponsor
 
Mike Doyle (D 14th) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Tim Holden (D 17th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Timothy Murphy (R 18th) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Todd Platts (R 19th) 6/4/2008
Puerto Rico 1 non-voting
cosponsor
 
Luis Fortuno (R At-Large) 6/3/2008
Rhode Island 2
cosponsor
 
Patrick Kennedy (D 1st) 6/12/2008
cosponsor
 
James Langevin (D 2nd) 6/10/2008
South Carolina 3
cosponsor
 
Joe Wilson (R 2nd) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
J. Gresham Barrett (R 3rd) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Bob Inglis (R 4th) 6/24/2008
Tennessee 7
cosponsor
 
David Davis (R 1st) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Zach Wamp (R 3rd) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Lincoln Davis (D 4th) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Jim Cooper (D 5th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Bart Gordon (D 6th) 6/12/2008
cosponsor
 
Marsha Blackburn (R 7th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Stephen Cohen (D 9th) 6/10/2008
Texas 19
cosponsor
 
Louie Gohmert (R 1st) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Ted Poe (R 2nd) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Sam Johnson (R 3rd) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Ralph Hall (R 4th) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Jeb Hensarling (R 5th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
John Culberson (R 7th) 6/12/2008
cosponsor
 
Al Green (D 9th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Michael McCaul (R 10th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Mike Conaway (R 11th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Kay Granger (R 12th) 6/12/2008
cosponsor
 
Charles Gonzalez (D 20th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Nicholas Lampson (D 22nd) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Ciro Rodriguez (D 23rd) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Kenny Marchant (R 24th) 6/5/2008
cosponsor
 
Michael Burgess (R 26th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Henry Cuellar (D 28th) 6/5/2008
cosponsor
 
Gene Green (D 29th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Eddie Bernice Johnson (D 30th) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Pete Sessions (R 32nd) 6/4/2008
Utah 3
cosponsor
 
Rob Bishop (R 1st) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Jim Matheson (D 2nd) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Chris Cannon (R 3rd) 6/10/2008
Virginia 5
cosponsor
 
Robert Wittman (R 1st) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Thelma Drake (R 2nd) 6/17/2008
cosponsor
 
Virgil Goode (R 5th) 6/4/2008
cosponsor
 
Bob Goodlatte (R 6th) 6/26/2008
cosponsor
 
Eric Cantor (R 7th) 6/3/2008
Washington 3
cosponsor
 
Norman Dicks (D 6th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Dave Reichert (R 8th) 6/10/2008
cosponsor
 
Adam Smith (D 9th) 6/11/2008
Wisconsin 2
cosponsor
 
Ron Kind (D 3rd) 6/24/2008
cosponsor
 
Steve Kagen (D 8th) 6/12/2008
Wyoming 1
cosponsor
 
Barbara Cubin (R At-Large) 6/24/2008
   
   
   

 

 

Back to Contents

Home

 


 

33 Senate Co-sponsors of Senate Resolution #580 as
of July 1, 2008

 

Congressional Legislation - Search Results

33 Senate Co-sponsors as of July 1, 2008

All Cosponsors from All States

Bill Name: 'A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate on preventing Iran from acquiring a nuclear weapons capability.'

Bill Number: S.RES.580

Cosponsor?

Cosponsor Name

Cosponsor Date

Alabama

Jeff Sessions (R)

6/18/2008

Connecticut

Joseph Lieberman (I)

6/16/2008

Florida

Bill Nelson (D)

6/26/2008

Mel Martinez (R)

6/4/2008

Georgia

Saxby Chambliss (R)

6/26/2008

Johnny Isakson (R)

6/18/2008

Idaho

Mike Crapo (R)

6/12/2008

Indiana

Evan Bayh (D)

6/2/2008

Kansas

Pat Roberts (R)

6/5/2008

Louisiana

Mary Landrieu (D)

6/24/2008

David Vitter (R)

6/12/2008

Maine

Olympia Snowe (R)

6/12/2008

Susan Collins (R)

6/4/2008

Maryland

Barbara Mikulski (D)

6/10/2008

Benjamin Cardin (D)

6/25/2008

Minnesota

Amy Klobuchar (D)

6/10/2008

Norm Coleman (R)

6/16/2008

Mississippi

Roger Wicker (R)

6/25/2008

New Hampshire

John Sununu (R)

6/6/2008

New Jersey

Robert Menendez (D)

6/16/2008

North Carolina

Elizabeth Dole (R)

6/4/2008

North Dakota

Kent Conrad (D)

6/11/2008

Byron Dorgan (D)

6/26/2008

Oregon

Ron Wyden (D)

6/9/2008

Gordon Smith (R)

6/2/2008

Pennsylvania

Robert Casey (D)

6/12/2008

South Carolina

Jim DeMint (R)

6/16/2008

South Dakota

Tim Johnson (D)

6/16/2008

John Thune (R)

6/2/2008

Tennessee

Bob Corker (R)

6/10/2008

Texas

John Cornyn (R)

6/5/2008

Washington

Patty Murray (D)

6/3/2008

Maria Cantwell (D)

6/3/2008

 

Back to Contents


 

Home