--- From the website as of May 12,
before the Nakba
1876 - 1877
Ottoman constitution promulgated. Palestinian deputies from
Jerusalem attend the first Ottoman parliament
in Istanbul, elected under a new Ottoman constitution.
Petah Tikva, the first modern Zionist agricultural settlement, established in
Ottoman government announces permission for foreign Jews to settle throughout
the Ottoman Empire, excluding
First wave of 25,000 Zionist immigrants enters
Palestine, coming mainly from Eastern Europe.
Baron Edmond de Rothschild of Paris
begins financial backing of Jewish colonization of Palestine.
Ottoman government adopts policy allowing Jewish pilgrims and businessmen to
but not to settle there.
Ottoman government informs Jewish leadership in
Constantinople that it views Zionist
colonization in Palestine as a political problem.
Ottoman government decides to close
Palestine to foreign Jewish businessmen but not to Jewish pilgrims.
Palestine divided by Ottomans into the districts of Jerusalem, Nablus and
- the first was attached directly to Istanbul, the others to the wilayet of
German Jewish millionaire, Baron Maurice de Hirsh, founds Jewish Colonization
Ottoman government forbids sale of state land to Foreign Jews in
European powers pressure Ottoman government to permit Jews legally residents
in Palestine to buy land provided they
establish no colonies on it.
Jewish Colonization Association (JCA) begins operations in Palestine.
Theodore Herzl, an Austro-Hungarian Jewish journalist and writer, publishes
Der Judenstaat, advocating establishment of a Jewish state in
Palestine or elsewhere.
Ottoman Sultan Abd-al Hamid II rejects Herzl's proposal that Palestine be
granted to the Jews.
JCA starts assisting Zionist settlement in Palestine.
First Zionist Congress in Switzerland issues the Basle Program calling for the
establishment of a "home for the Jewish people in Palestine". It also
establishes the World Zionist Organization (WZO) to work to that end.
response to First Zionist Congress, Abd-al Hamid II initiates policy of
sending members of his own Palace staff to govern province of Jerusalem.
Commission headed by Muhammad Tahir al-Husseini, Mufti of Jerusalem, appointed
to scrutinize Zionist land acquisition methods.
Arabic press reacts to first Zionist Congress: Cairo journal al-Manar
warns that Zionism aims to take possession of Palestine.
Albert Antebi, JCA representative in
Jerusalem, observes that program of First Zionist Congress has adversely
affected relations between Palestinians and Jewish immigrants.
Herzl sends letter to Palestinian Mayor of
Jerusalem hinting that, if Zionists not
welcomed in Palestine, they will go elsewhere.
Ottoman government sends commission of inquiry to Palestine to study
implications of Zionist mass immigration and land acquisition.
Pressured by European powers, Ottoman government allows foreign Jews to buy
land in Northern Palestine.
Jewish National Fund (JNF) set up by Fifth Zionist Congress in Basle to
acquire land for WZO; land acquired by JNF to be inalienably Jewish, and
exclusively Jewish labor to be employed on it.
Ottoman restrictions on Zionist immigration to and land acquisition in
Jerusalem district take effect.
Administrative Council of Jerusalem strongly objects to JCA 's attempts at
acquiring in Jerusalem district.
Palestinian farmers in Tiberias region express alarm at extent of Zionist land
JCA representative Antebi observes that "the ill will of the local population
coincides with the creation of Zionism".
Second wave of Zionist mass immigration to Palestine begins.
Death of Theodore Herzl.
Tensions develop between Zionist colonists and Palestinian farmers in Tiberias
First kibbutz, based on exclusively Jewish labor, established.
Report issued by Ottoman governor of Jerusalem on Zionist evasion of Ottoman
immigration and land-transfer regulations.
Palestinian deputies from Jerusalem, Jaffa, Nablus and
elected to Ottoman parliament of 1908 in
Beginning of "Young Turks" Revolution in Constantinople.
Tel Aviv founded north of Jaffa.
Tensions and clashes between Zionist colonists and Palestinian farmers near
Zionists issue raised for the first time in Ottoman parliament by Palestinian
deputy from Jaffa.
Arabic newspapers in Beirut, Damascus and Haifa express opposition to Zionist
land acquisition in Palestine.
European powers pressure Ottoman government to allow land acquisition in
Palestinian newspaper Filastine begins to appear; addressing its
readers as "Palestinians", it warns about consequences of Zionist
Two Jerusalem deputies open first full-scale debate in Ottoman parliament on
Zionism, charging that Zionist aim is to create Jewish state in Palestine.
European powers renew pressure on Ottoman government to facilitate Zionist
land acquisition in Palestine.
Correspondence between Sharif Hussein of Mecca (leader of the Arab Revolt
against the Ottomans) and Sir Henry McMahon (British high commissioner of
Jemal Pasha, Ottoman military governor, hangs 11 Arab nationalists in
Hussein - McMahon correspondence ends in agreement for postwar independence
and unity of Arab provinces of Ottoman Empire.
Sykes - Picot Agreement secretly signed, dividing Ottoman Empire between
Britain and France. Agreement revealed by Bolsheviks in December 1917.
Sharif Hussein proclaims Arab independence from Ottoman on basis of his
correspondence with Mc Mahon. Arab Revolt against Constantinople begins.
Sharif Hussein proclaimed "King of the Arab countries".
Balfour Declaration. British Secretary of State Balfour pledges British
support for a "Jewish national home in Palestine".
Surrender of Ottoman forces in Jerusalem to Allied forces under General Sir
Palestine occupied by Allied forces under British General Allenby.
End of World War I.
Palestine occupied by Allied forces under British General Allenby.
End of World War I.
Paris Peace Conference decides conquered Arab provinces will not be restored
to Ottoman rule.
First Palestinian National Congress in Jerusalem sends two memoranda to Peace
Conference rejecting Balfour Declaration and demanding independence.
Peace Conference decides to send international commission of inquiry to
ascertain aspirations of Near East peoples, led by Americans Henry C. King and
Charles R. Crane as England and France decline to participate.
Commission recommends that "the project of making Palestine distinctly a
Jewish commonwealth should be given up".
Disturbances in Palestine: 5 Jews killed and 200 wounded.
British appoints Palin Commission of Inquiry; Commission report attributes
troubles to non-fulfillment of promises of Arab independence and fear of
political and economic consequences of Zionism.
General Syrian Congress proclaims independence of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine
with Prince Faisal as King.
Supreme Council of San Remo Peace Conference assigns Palestine Mandate to
Britain without consent of Palestinians.
British prevent Second Palestinian National Congress from convening.
British civilian administration inaugurated; Sir Herbert Samuel (an
Anglo-Jewish politician) appointed first high commissioner.
Third Palestinian National Congress elects Executive Committee, which remains
in control of Palestinian political movement from 1920 to 1935.
Founding of the Haganah, the Zionist's illegal underground military
Outbreak of disturbances in Jaffa protesting large-scale Zionist immigration;
46 Jews killed and 146 wounded.
British Haycraft Commission of Inquiry attributes disturbances to fears of
Zionist mass immigration.
Haj Amin al-Husseini appointed Mufti of Jerusalem.
Fourth Palestinian National Congress decides to send a Palestinian delegation
to London to explain the Palestinian case against the Balfour Declaration.
Second Palestinian delegation to London announces rejection of Balfour
Declaration to British Colonial Secretary Winston Churchill and demands
national independence. Churchill issues White Paper excluding Transjordan
from scope of Balfour declaration. Ignoring political criteria, White Paper
authorizes Jewish immigration according to "economic absorptive capacity" of
League of Nations Council approves Mandate for Palestine.
Fifth Palestinian National Congress agrees to economic boycott of Zionists.
First British census of Palestine shows population of 757,182, with 78%
Muslim, 11% Jewish and 9.6% Christian.
Resigning from Zionist Executive, Polish Zionist leader Vladimir Jabotinsky
calls for forcible colonization of Palestine and
British Mandate for Palestine comes officially into being.
Fourth wave of 67,000 Zionist immigrants, over 50% from
Poland, increases Jewish population of
Palestine to 16% of total. Registered Jewish land ownership (1928) totals
4.2% of area of country.
Jabotinsky forms Revisionist Party with aim of "revising" Mandate to include
colonization of Transjordan.
Palestinian general strike protests private visit by Lord Balfour to
First attempt by some Jewish religious leaders to change "status quo" at
Islamic Conference, meeting in
Jerusalem, demands protection of Muslim property rights at Wailing Wall,
itself a Muslim holy site.
Palestinians riot in several towns in reaction to militant demonstrations at
Wailing Wall. In resulting clashes, 133 Jews killed and 339 wounded; 116
Palestinians killed and 232 wounded, mostly at hands of British military.
General conference convenes in Jerusalem to formulate Palestinian position on
Wailing Wall controversy.
League of Nations Council appoints international commission to investigate
legal status of Palestinians and Jews at Wailing Wall.
British Shaw Palestinian Commission of Inquiry attributes 1929 disturbances to
Palestinian fears of Jewish immigration "not only as a menace to their
livelihood but as a possible overlord of the future".
Fourth Palestinian Delegation to
British Hope-Simpson report on land settlement, immigration and development in
Palestine concludes that there is not
sufficient agricultural land for substantially increased number of Jewish
British Colonial Secretary Lord Passfield issues White Paper of 1930 on
Palestine, which takes note of views
expressed by Hope-Simpson and Shaw commissions of inquiry.
International Wailing Wall Commission recommends restoration of status quo
ante and confirms Muslim property rights at Wailing Wall.
Irgun Zvai Leumi (National Military Organization), Irgun or IZL for short,
founded by Revisionist groups and dissidents from Haganah, advocates a more
militant policy against Palestinians. Vladimir Jabotinsky is
a letter to Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann, Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald
virtually retracts Lord Passfield's White Paper of 1930.
Second British census of Palestine shows total population of 1,035,154 with
73.4% Muslim, 16.9% Jewish and 8.6% Christian.
Lewis French, British Director of Development for Palestine, publishes report
on "Landless Arabs", caused by Zionist colonization.
Formation of Istiqlal (Independence) Party as first regularly constituted
Palestinian political party.
Arab Executive Committee declares Zionist mass immigration "has terrified the
British Secretary of State issues statement on resettlement of Palestinian
farmers displaced from land acquired by Zionists.
Committee calls for general strike to protest British pro-Zionist policies,
especially sponsorship of Zionist mass immigration; disturbances break out in
Special commission of inquiry under Sir William Murison reports on causes of
Defense Party founded.
Palestine Arab Party founded.
Reform Party founded.
Revisionists quit World Zionist Organization (WZO) to form New Zionist
Organization with aim of "liberating" Palestine and
Large quantity of arms smuggled from Belgium by Zionist groups, discovered at
Sheikh 'Izz al-Din al-Qassam, Muslim cleric from Haifa, leader of first
Palestinian guerrilla group fighting British policy in Palestine, killed in
action against British security force.
High commissioner proposes establishment of 28-member Legislative Council with
Palestinians holding only 14 seats; Palestinians accept proposal in principle.
Legislative Council proposal defeated by pro-Zionist members in British House
Leaders of Palestinian political parties form Higher Arab Committee under
Chairman Haj Amin al-Husseini.
Conference of Palestinian National Committees in
Jerusalem calls for no taxation without
representation. Great rebellion begins.
Lebanese guerrilla leader Fawzi al-Qawuqji enters
Palestine leading 150 volunteers from Arab
countries to help fight British.
Royal Commission headed by Lord Peel arrives in
Royal Commission leaves Palestine.
Irgun/IZL, linked to Revisionist movement under Jabotinsky, reorganizes and
advocates armed attacks on Palestinians.
Royal Commission report recommends partitioning Palestine into Jewish state
comprising 33% of country including Haifa, Galilee and coastal plain north of
Isdud; Arab state in rest of country (to be incorporated into Transjordan) and
British mandatory enclaves including Jerusalem. Part of Palestinian
population to be forcibly transferred, if necessary, from Jewish state.
Arab Higher Committee rejects Royal Commission's partition proposal and
demands independent unitary Palestinian state "with protection of all
legitimate Jewish and other minority rights and the safeguarding of reasonable
British interests". Rebellion intensifies.
World Zionist Congress in Zurich decides to ascertain "the precise terms … for
the proposed establishment of a Jewish state".
Arab National Congress at Bludan, Syria, attended by 450 delegates from Arab
countries, rejects partition plan, demands end to Mandate, a stop to Zionist
immigration and prohibition of transfer of Palestinian lands to Zionist
British dissolve Arab Higher Committee and all Palestinian political
organizations. Five Palestinian leaders deported. Haj Amin al-Husseini
escapes to Lebanon.
British establishes military courts throughout Palestine to counter escalating
British decides to send technical commission of inquiry, under chairmanship of
Sir John Woodhead, to study feasibility of partition as recommended by Royal
Sir Harold MacMichael succeeds General Sir Arthur Wauchope as high
Irgun/IZL bombings kill 119 Palestinians. Palestinian bombs and mines kill 8
Technical commission of inquiry arrives in Palestine.
British officer Orde Wingate organizes Special Night Squads, composed of
British and Haganah personnel, for operations against Palestinian villages.
British military commanders take over administrative control from district
commissioners to help suppress rebellion, reinforcements brought from
British troops recapture Old City of Jerusalem from Palestinians.
Report of British Woodhead technical commission of inquiry declares
impracticality of Royal Commission's partition proposal. British call for
general conference on Palestine to be held in London and attended by Arab,
Palestinian and Zionist representatives.
Palestinian leaders previously deported to Seychelles
released, but denied return to
London Conference ends with no agreement reached.
Malcom MacDonald, Colonial Secretary of State, issues White Paper of 1939
embodying British solution to Palestine problem: conditional independence for
unitary Palestinian state after ten years; admission of 15,000 Jewish
immigrants annually into Palestine for five years, with immigration after that
subject to "Arab acquiescence"; protection of Palestinian land rights against
British House of Commons votes 268 to 179 to approve White Paper of 1939.
Irgun calls for conquest of Palestine by force.
Outbreak of World War II.
Stern Gang, formed under Avraham Stern by dissident Irgunists, in protest
against 1939 White Paper policy, calls for alliance with Axis powers in war
Arrival of over 60,000 Zionist immigrants, including 20 - 25,000 who have
entered the country illegally, increases Jewish population in
to 31% of total. Registered Jewish land ownership rises to 6% of area of
Land Transfers Regulations, suggested by 1939 White Paper to protect
Palestinian land rights against Zionist acquisition, enter into force.
Death of Vladimir Jabotinsky, right-wing founder of Zionist Revisionist
Avraham Stern, founder of Stern Gang, killed by British police.
Zionist Biltmore Conference held in New York and attended by leading Zionists
from US and Palestine, urges that "Palestine be established as a Jewish
Haganah steals arms and explosives from British military installations.
David Ben-Gurion states that end of World War II will be beginning of Zionist
struggle in Palestine.
Five-year limit on Jewish immigration extended so all 75,000 visas permitted
in 1939 White Paper can be filled.
Stern Gang and Irgun join to conduct terror campaign against British.
Congress introduces joint resolution endorsing Biltmore program.
British Labor Party passes resolution recommending that Palestinians be
"encouraged" to move out of Palestine to make way for Jewish immigrants.
Failure of an attempt by Zionist terrorists to assassinate High Commissioner
Sir Harold MacMichael and Lady Mac Michael in Jerusalem.
Preparatory Conference on Arab Unity held in Alexandria, Egypt, and attended
by Palestinian representatives, proposes formation of Arab state in Palestine
in which non-Arab community will have full citizenship rights.
Stern Gang murders Lord Moyne, British resident minister of state in
President Roosevelt meets King ibn-Saud at Suez Canal and assures him US will
make no move hostile to Arab peoples.
Covenant of League of Arab States, emphasizing Arab character of
signed in Cairo
by representatives of Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria,
End of World War II in Europe.
visit to US, Ben-Gurion meets with 19 prominent American Zionists, who pledge
to finance purchase in US of military industrial machinery for use of Haganah.
President Truman asks British Prime Minister Clement Attlee to grant
immigration certificates allowing 100,000 Jews into Palestine.
Large-scale illegal Jewish immigration into Palestine resumes under Haganah
British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin issues White Paper announcing continued
Jewish immigration into Palestine after exhaustion of 1939 White Paper quota.
Arab League secretary general objects to continued Zionist mass immigration
and inquires what contribution US and Britain are making to relieve postwar
Jewish refugee problem in Europe.
King ibn-Saud of Saudi Arabia and King Farouk of Egypt issue joint statement
from Cairo expressing support for Palestinians.
Palestinians strike in protest against British decision to allow Zionist mass
immigration to continue at rate of 1939 quota.
Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, proposed in 1945 White Paper, arrives in
Arab League establishes fund to protect Palestinian farmers from Zionist land
Anglo-American Committee report estimates size of Jewish armed forces at
around 61 - 69,000 people and declares "private armies" illegal. Recommends
admission of 100,00 Jews into Palestine and abolition of Land Transfers
Regulations. Palestinians strike in protest.
Arab League meeting in Syria adopts secret resolutions warning Britain and US
that disregard for Palestinian rights will damage their oil and commercial
interests in Arab World.
Simultaneous attacks by Haganah on eight major railroad and highway bridges.
British forces arrest 2,675 Jews, including four members of Jewish Agency, in
retaliation for terrorist attacks.
British White Paper on terrorism in Palestine accuses Haganah of cooperating
with IZL and Stern Gang in acts of sabotage and violence.
Anglo-American Conference, meeting in London, produces Morrison-Grady Plan
proposing federal scheme to solve Palestine problem; plan rejected by both
Arabs and Zionist leaders.
Delegates from Arab States to Round Table Conference in
London proposes unitary state of Palestine,
preserving current Arab majority in which Jews would have full civil rights.
British security officer for Tel Aviv killed with his wife when their house
blown up by Zionist terrorists.
Inner Zionist Council declares that only establishment of Jewish state can
solve twin problems of Jewish people and Palestine.
Jewish Agency Executive appeals for cessation of acts of terrorism by Jews.
Arab League calls on Britain to arm Palestinians against Zionist terrorist
World Zionist Congress, meeting in Basel, decides not to send representatives
to London Conference.
Chronology of the
Round Table Conference reopens.
February: British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin proposes variant of
Morrison-Grady federal plan at London Conference and to Jewish Agency. Arab
delegates and Jewish Agency reject proposal.
Bevin announces British submission of
Palestine problem to United
March: Arab League blames Britain and US for deteriorating situation in
April: UN General Assembly special session on Palestine problem leads to
appointment of eleven-member Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP).
June: Stern Gang claims responsibility for letter bombs addressed to
leading British government officials in London.
August: Haganah terrorist attack on Palestinian orange grower's house
near Tel Aviv kills twelve occupants including mother and six children.
September 8: Publication of UNSCOP report. Majority of members recommend
partition and minority recommend federal solution.
September 16 - 19: Arab League denounces UNSCOP partition recommendation
and appoints Technical Military Committee to supervise Palestinian defense
September 26: British Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones announces
Britain's decision to end Palestine Mandate.
September 29: Arab Higher Committee for Palestine rejects partition.
October 2: Jewish Agency announces acceptance of partition.
October 11: US endorses partition
October 29: Britain says it will leave Palestine in six months if no
settlement is reached.
November 27: Technical Military Committee chairman warns of virtual
impossibility of overcoming Zionist forces with irregulars; urges prompt Arab
action in organizing military forces; advocates training Palestinians to defend
November 29: UN General Assembly recommends slight variant of UNSCOP
partition plan by 33 to 13 votes with 10 abstentions. Arab representatives walk
out of assembly.
November 30: Haganah calls up all Jews in Palestine aged 17-25 to
register for military service.
December: Haganah launches Plan Gimmel, designed to destabilize
Palestinian population and occupy strategic positions in country.
Arab League organizes Arab Liberation Army (ALA), a voluntary force of Arab
irregulars under guerrilla leader Fawzi al-Qawuqji to help Palestinians resist
December 2: Palestinians start three-day strike protesting UN partition
resolution. Intercommunal clashes result in death of eight Jews and six
December 5: US State Department announces US embargo on arms shipments to
Palestine and Arab states.
December 8: Britain recommends to UN that Palestine Mandate be terminated
on 15 May 1948 and independent Jewish and Palestinian states be established two
December 8 - 17: Arab League declares partition of Palestine illegal; it
resolves to provide 10,000 rifles, 3,000 volunteers (including 500 Palestinians)
and additional 1,000,000 pounds.
December 15: British turns policing of Tel Aviv and Petah Tikva over to
Jews and that of Jaffa
December 17: Jewish Agency Executive reports that American Jews will be
asked for $250 million to help Jewish community in
December 19: Haganah attacks village of Khisas (Safed district) killing
December 20: Haganah attacks village of Qazaza (Ramleh district).
December 1947 - January 1948: Arab Higher Committee organizes 275 local
committees for defense of Palestinian towns and villages.
British sells 20 Auster planes to Jewish authorities in Palestine.
Palestinian guerrilla leader 'Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini secretly returns to
Palestine after ten-year exile to organize resistance to partition.
January 8: First contingent of 330 ALA volunteers arrives in Palestine.
January 14: Haganah concludes $12,280,000 arms deal with Czechoslovakia,
including 24,500 rifles, 5,200 machine guns and 54 million rounds of
January 16: British report to UN estimates 1,974 people killed or injured
in Palestine from 30 November 1947 - 10 January 1948.
January 20: British administration announces that predominantly Jewish or
Palestinian areas will be gradually handed over to local majority group in every
January 21 & 28: Second and third contingents of 360 and 400 ALA
irregulars arrive in Palestine. January - March: JNF leaders encourage
eviction from villages of Haifa
February: Haganah office set up in US under name "Land and Labor" for
recruitment of professional military personnel (MAHAL).
February 14: Ben-Gurion issues orders to Haganah commander in Jerusalem
for conquest of whole city and its suburbs.
February 18: Haganah calls up men and women aged 25 - 35 for military
February 20: Ship Independence
arrives at Tel Aviv with 280 volunteers under oath to Haganah on board,
implementing policy of illegal immigration of military personnel.
February 24: US delegate to UN
says role of Security Council regarding Palestine to keep peace, not enforce
partition. Syrian delegate proposes appointment of Committee to explore
possibility of Jewish Agency - Arab Higher Committee agreement.
February 27: Jewish Agency announces it will establish state even without
backing of an international force.
March: Transjordanian prime minister Tawfiq Abu al-Huda secretly meets
British foreign secretary Bevin. They agree that Transjordanian forces will
enter Palestine at end of Mandate but will restrict themselves to area of Arab
state outlined in Partition Plan.
March 2: US
delegate tells Security Council US
favors implementing partition by "peaceful measures" only.
March 5 - 7: Qawuqji enters Palestine and assumes command of ALA units in
central Palestine. March 6: Haganah declares general mobilization.
March 10: British House of Commons votes to terminate Mandate on May
March 19 - 20: US delegate asks UN Security Council to suspend action on
partition plan and to convene General Assembly special session to work on a
trusteeship and truce if Jews also accept. Jewish Agency rejects trusteeship.
March 19: Ben-Gurion declares Jewish state dependent not on UN partition
decision but on Jewish military preponderance.
March 25: President Truman secretly receives Chaim Weizmann at White
House and pledges support for declaration of Jewish state on May 15th.
March 30 - May 15: Second coastal "clearing" operation carried out by
Haganah Alexandroni brigade and other units.
Attacks and expulsions drive out almost all Palestinian communities from coastal
area from Haifa to Jaffa prior to British withdrawal.
April 1: Ship Nora delivers first consignment of Czech arms in Haifa. UN
Security Council resolutions call for a special session of General Assembly and
agree to US proposal for truce to be arranged through Jewish Agency and Arab
April 2: Haganah captures Palestinian village of
west of Jerusalem, expelling its
inhabitants. April 5: Palestinian and Zionist leaders object to US
proposals presented to Security Council for temporary trusteeship agreement.
Haganah launches Operation Nachshon (first phase of Plan Dalet); Haganah Giv'ati
Brigade and other units capture villages along Tel-Aviv - Jerusalem road from
local Palestinian militia.
April 8: Haganah starts offensive against Palestinian town of Tiberias.
April 9: 'Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini, charismatic Palestinian militia
commander in Jerusalem district, is killed leading counterattack to recover
Irgun and Stern Gang massacre some 120 inhabitants in village of
western suburb of Jerusalem
and three miles from Castel.
April 12: General Zionist Council decides to establish independent Jewish
state in Palestine on May 16th.
April 13 - 20: Operation Har'el under Plan Dalet launched at conclusion
of Operation Nachshon. Villages along Jerusalem road attacked and demolished.
All subsequent Haganah operations until May 15th undertaken within framework of
April 16: British evacuate town of Safed.
April 17: Security Council resolution calls for military and political
Haganah starts offensive against town of Safed.
April 20: US submits Palestine
trusteeship plan to UN.
April 21: British suddenly evacuate residential quarters of Haifa.
April 22: Haganah launches Operation Misparayim to attack and occupy
Resistance of local Palestinian militia in Haifa collapses.
Haifa's Palestinian population flees under combined shelling and ground
April 25 - 31: Launching of Operation Chametz to conquer Jaffa, Haganah
attacks suburban villages of Tell Rish, Yazur and Salameh.
April 26: Lauching Operation Yevussi for conquest of whole of Jerusalem;
Haganah attacks Palestinian residential quarter of Sheikh Jarrah in East
Jerusalem, cutting off the city from north, but are forced to hand it over to
the British. Haganah's attempt at cutting off Jerusalem from Jericho fails.
April 27: Haganah announces coordination of plans with Irgun.
April 28 - 30: Palestinian ALA unit under Michel Issa succeeds in
fighting its way into Jaffa
in order to break Haganah siege.
April 30: All Palestinian quarters in West Jerusalem occupied by Haganah
and residents driven out.
May 1: Lebanon
decide to send troops to Palestine at
end of Mandate on May 15th.
May 2: Iraq
dispatches troops to town of Mafraq, in
Transjordan, en route to Palestine after May 15th. Three planeloads of arms for
Haganah arrive from France.
May 3: Between 175,000 and 200,000 Palestinian refugees are reported to
have fled from areas taken by Zionists.
Jewish colonists from Gush Etzion, south of
Jerusalem, ambush traffic on road to city.
May 4: Unit of Transjordan Arab Legion, operating in Palestine under
British command, shells Gush Etzion in retaliation for ambush. British announces
it is studying transitional trusteeship regime for
to take effect at end of Mandate.
May 5: ALA unit under Michel Issa withdraws from Jaffa, ending city's
May 10: Haganah enters Jaffa.
May 11 - 12: Haganah captures Safed and surrounding villages.
May 12: State of emergency declared in all Arab countries and able-bodied
Palestinian men barred entry to them.
Egyptian parliament decides to send troops to Palestine at end of Mandate.
May 12 - 14: Arrival of second and third Czech arms consignments for
May 13: Arab Legion, ALA and local militia attack and capture Jewish
settlements of Etzion bloc, retaliating for attacks on Hebron road.
Jaffa formally surrenders to Haganah.
May 14: State of Israel proclaimed in Tel Aviv at 4pm.
Haganah launches Operation Schfifon for capture of Old City of Jerusalem.
May 15: British Mandate ends.
Declaration of State of Israel comes into effect.
President Truman recognizes State of Israel. First Egyptian troops cross border
into Palestine and attack colonies of Kfar Darom and Nirim in Negev.
Three Transjordanian Arab Legion brigades cross
Jordan River into Palestine.
Lebanese troops retake Lebanese villages of Malkiya and Qadas (on Lebanese
border), attacked and captured earlier by Haganah.
May 17: Haganah captures Acre.
May 18: Syrian troops retake Palestinian town of Samakh, south of
and capture Zionist colonies of Shaar Hagolan and Masada.
Arab Legion units reach Latrun and consolidate blockade of coastal road to
Jewish quarters in Jerusalem.
May 19: Haganah breaks into Old City of Jerusalem. Arab Legion comes to
the rescue of Old City.
May 20: UN Security Council appoints Count Folke Bernadotte as its
mediator in Palestine.
May 22: Security Council resolution calls for cease-fire.
June 11 - July 8: First truce.
June 28 - 29: Count Bernadotte suggests economic, military and political
union of Transjordan and Palestine containing Arab and Jewish states: Negev and
central Palestine to go to Arabs, Western Galilee to Jews, Jerusalem to be part
of Arab state with administrative autonomy to Jews, Haifa and Jaffa to be free
ports and Lydda free airport. Rejected by both sides.
July 7: Security Council calls for prolongation of truce.
July 15: Security Council resolution calls on governments and authorities
concerned to issue indefinite cease-fire orders to their forces in Palestine to
take effect within three weeks.
July 18 - October 15: Second truce.
September 16: Report by UN mediator Count Bernadotte proposed new
partition of Palestine: Arab state to be annexed to Transjordan and to include
Negev, al-Ramla and Lydda; Jewish state
in all of Galilee;
internationalization of Jerusalem;
return or compensation of refugees. Rejected by Arab League and
September 17: Count Bernadotte murdered in
Jerusalem by Stern Gang.
Replaced by his American deputy Ralph Bunche.
November 4: UN Security Council resolution calls for withdrawal of forces
to positions occupied prior to October 14 and establishment of permanent truce
November 1948 - mid 1949: IDF expels inhabitants from villages 5-15 km
inside Lebanese border, followed by expulsions from other Galilee
December 22 - January 6, 1949:
Operation Horev launched to drive Egyptians out of southern coastal strip and
Israeli troops move into Sinai until British pressure forces withdrawal.
December 27: IDF Alexandroni brigade's attack on isolated Egyptian forces
in Faluja pocket is repulsed
February 24: Israeli-Egyptian armistice: Egypt keeps coastal strip Gaza-Rafah
and evacuates Faluja pocket.
End of February: IDF units intimidate 2-3,000 villagers into leaving
Faluja pocket in violation of Israeli-Egyptian Armistice Agreement.
March: IDF Negev and Golani brigades complete occupation of Negev
as far as Umm Rashrash/Eilat.
March 23: Israeli-Lebanese Armistice: Frontier of Mandate Palestine
accepted; Israel withdraws from most of
April 3: Israeli-Jordanian Armistice: Jordan takes over Iraqi-held
Nablus-Jenin-Tulkarem triangle but is forced to cede area around Wadi 'Ara;
Israel controls Chadera-Afula road; existing status quo in Jerusalem accepted by
IDF and Arab Legion.
July 20: Syrian-Israeli Armistice: demilitarized zones established around
'En Gev and Dardara (including Mishmar ha-Yarden).
villages were built in the place of Arab villages. You do not even know the
names of these Arab villages, and I do not blame you because geography books no
longer exist, not only do the books not exist, the Arab villages are not there
either Nahlal arose in the place of Mahlul; Kibbbutz Gvat in the place of Jibta;
Kibbutz Sarid in the place of Huneifis; and Kefar Yehushu'a in the place of Tal
al- Shuman. There is not one single place built in this country that did not
have a former Arab Population."
Moshe Dayan, Address to the
Technion, Haifa ( as quated in Ha'aretz, 4 April 1969)
"By the end
of the 1948 war, hundreds of entire villages had not only been depopulated but
obliterated, their houses blown up or bulldozed. While many of the sites are
difficult of access, to this day the observant traveler of Israeli roads and
highways can see traces of their presence that would escape the notice of the
casual passerby: a fenced-in area, often surmounting a gentle hill, of olive and
other fruit trees left untended, of cactus hedges and domesticated plants run
wild. Now and then a few crumbled houses are left standing, a neglected mosque
or church, collapsing walls along the ghost of a village lane, but in the vast
majority of cases, all that remains is a scattering of stones and rubble across
a forgotten landscape."
W. Khalidi, All That Remains
This Section contains the list of destroyed & depopulated villages in 1948-49.
The District of
2) The District of Baysan
3) The District of Beersheba
4) The District of Gaza
5) The District of Haifa
6) The District of Hebron
7) The District of Jaffa
8) The District of Jerusalem
9) The District of Jinin
10) The District of Nazareth
11) The District of Al-Ramla
12) The District of Safad
13) The District of Tiberias
14) The District of Tulkarm
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Palestinian Identity: The Construction of
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All That Remains:The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in
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Before Their Diaspora,Institute
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The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem
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Published under the Auspices of the
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Palestinian Localities Destroyed after 1948
St. Sulpice, Switzerland: Association Pour Reconstruire Emmaus, 1987.
1947 - 48 UN Resolutions:
UN Resolution 181
UN Resolution 194
Text of the Palestinian People Nakba Appeal, drafted and read by Poet Mahmoud
Darwish on May 15th 1998
Fifty years of dispossession
Dheisheh refugee camp website
American Committee for Jerusalem
Arab-American anti-discrimination Ctte
The Alternative Information Center
Birzeit University's Center for Research & Documentation
Inaash al Usra Society
Deir Yassin Remembered
City of Jaffa
September 1996 martyrs