Information on Palestine


from http://www.alnakba.org

 

  

---  From the website as of May 12, 2008  ---

 

Chronology of events before the Nakba


1876 - 1877

1878

1881

1882

1884

1887 - 1888

1891

1892

1893

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

1902

1903

1904

1907

1908

1909

1910

1911

1912

1914

1915

1916

1917

1918

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924 - 1928

1925

1928

1929

1930

1931

1932

1933

1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

 

1939

1940 - 1945

1940

1942

1943

1944

1945

1946

January:

February:

March:

May:


June:

July:

September:

October:

December:



 

 

Chronology of the Nakba



1947


January:
London Round Table Conference reopens.
February: British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin proposes variant of Morrison-Grady federal plan at London Conference and to Jewish Agency.  Arab delegates and Jewish Agency reject proposal.
Bevin announces British submission of
Palestine problem to United Nations.
March: Arab League blames Britain and US for deteriorating situation in Palestine.
April: UN General Assembly special session on Palestine problem leads to appointment of eleven-member Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP).
June: Stern Gang claims responsibility for letter bombs addressed to leading British government officials in London.
August: Haganah terrorist attack on Palestinian orange grower's house near Tel Aviv kills twelve occupants including mother and six children.
September 8: Publication of UNSCOP report.  Majority of members recommend partition and minority recommend federal solution.
September 16 - 19: Arab League denounces UNSCOP partition recommendation and appoints Technical Military Committee to supervise Palestinian defense needs.
September 26: British Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones announces Britain's decision to end Palestine Mandate.
September 29: Arab Higher Committee for Palestine rejects partition.
October 2: Jewish Agency announces acceptance of partition.
October 11: US endorses partition
October 29: Britain says it will leave Palestine in six months if no settlement is reached.
November 27: Technical Military Committee chairman warns of virtual impossibility  of overcoming Zionist forces with irregulars; urges prompt Arab action in organizing military forces; advocates training Palestinians to defend themselves.
November 29: UN General Assembly recommends slight variant of UNSCOP partition plan by 33 to 13 votes with 10 abstentions.  Arab representatives walk out of assembly.
November 30: Haganah calls up all Jews in Palestine aged 17-25 to register for military service.
December: Haganah launches Plan Gimmel, designed to destabilize Palestinian population and occupy strategic positions in country.
Arab League organizes Arab Liberation Army (ALA), a voluntary force of Arab irregulars under guerrilla leader Fawzi al-Qawuqji to help Palestinians resist partition.
December 2: Palestinians start three-day strike protesting UN partition resolution.  Intercommunal clashes result in death of eight Jews and six Palestinians.
December 5: US State Department announces US embargo on arms shipments to Palestine and Arab states.
December 8: Britain recommends to UN that Palestine Mandate be terminated on 15 May 1948 and independent Jewish and Palestinian states be established two weeks later.
December 8 - 17: Arab League declares partition of Palestine illegal; it resolves to provide 10,000 rifles, 3,000 volunteers (including 500 Palestinians) and additional 1,000,000 pounds.
December 15: British turns policing of Tel Aviv and Petah Tikva over to Jews and that of
Jaffa to Palestinians.
December 17: Jewish Agency Executive reports that American Jews will be asked for $250 million to help Jewish community in
Palestine.
December 19: Haganah attacks village of Khisas (Safed district) killing ten Palestinians.
December 20: Haganah attacks village of Qazaza (Ramleh district).
December 1947 - January 1948: Arab Higher Committee organizes 275 local committees for defense of Palestinian towns and villages.

1948

January: British sells 20 Auster planes to Jewish authorities in Palestine. 
Palestinian guerrilla leader 'Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini secretly returns to Palestine after ten-year exile to organize resistance to partition.
January 8: First contingent of 330 ALA volunteers arrives in Palestine. 
January 14: Haganah concludes $12,280,000 arms deal with Czechoslovakia, including 24,500 rifles, 5,200 machine guns and 54 million rounds of ammunition. 
January 16: British report to UN estimates 1,974 people killed or injured in Palestine from 30 November 1947 - 10 January 1948.
January 20: British administration announces that predominantly Jewish or Palestinian areas will be gradually handed over to local majority group in every area concerned. 
January 21 & 28: Second and third contingents of 360 and 400 ALA irregulars arrive in Palestine. January - March: JNF leaders encourage eviction from villages of
Haifa area. 
February: Haganah office set up in US under name "Land and Labor" for recruitment of professional military personnel (MAHAL). 
February 14: Ben-Gurion issues orders to Haganah commander in Jerusalem for conquest of whole city and its suburbs. 
February 18: Haganah calls up men and women aged 25 - 35 for military service. 
February 20: Ship
Independence arrives at Tel Aviv with 280 volunteers under oath to Haganah on board, implementing policy of illegal immigration of military personnel. 
February 24:
US delegate to UN says role of Security Council regarding Palestine to keep peace, not enforce partition. Syrian delegate proposes appointment of Committee to explore possibility of Jewish Agency - Arab Higher Committee agreement. 
February 27: Jewish Agency announces it will establish state even without backing of an international force. 
March: Transjordanian prime minister Tawfiq Abu al-Huda secretly meets British foreign secretary Bevin. They agree that Transjordanian forces will enter Palestine at end of Mandate but will restrict themselves to area of Arab state outlined in Partition Plan. 
March 2:
US delegate tells Security Council US favors implementing partition by "peaceful measures" only. 
March 5 - 7: Qawuqji enters Palestine and assumes command of ALA units in central Palestine. March 6: Haganah declares general mobilization. 
March 10: British House of Commons votes to terminate Mandate on May 15th. 
March 19 - 20: US delegate asks UN Security Council to suspend action on partition plan and to convene General Assembly special session to work on a trusteeship and truce if Jews also accept. Jewish Agency rejects trusteeship. 
March 19: Ben-Gurion declares Jewish state dependent not on UN partition decision but on Jewish military preponderance. 
March 25: President Truman secretly receives Chaim Weizmann at White House and pledges support for declaration of Jewish state on May 15th. 
March 30 - May 15: Second coastal "clearing" operation carried out by Haganah Alexandroni brigade and other units.
Attacks and expulsions drive out almost all Palestinian communities from coastal area from Haifa to Jaffa prior to British withdrawal. 
April 1: Ship Nora delivers first consignment of Czech arms in Haifa. UN Security Council resolutions call for a special session of General Assembly and agree to US proposal for truce to be arranged through Jewish Agency and Arab Higher Committee. 
April 2: Haganah captures Palestinian village of
Castel, west of Jerusalem, expelling its inhabitants. April 5: Palestinian and Zionist leaders object to US proposals presented to Security Council for temporary trusteeship agreement. 
Haganah launches Operation Nachshon (first phase of Plan Dalet); Haganah Giv'ati Brigade and other units capture villages along Tel-Aviv - Jerusalem road from local Palestinian militia. 
April 8: Haganah starts offensive against Palestinian town of Tiberias. 
April 9: 'Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini, charismatic Palestinian militia commander in Jerusalem district, is killed leading counterattack to recover Castel village.
Irgun and Stern Gang massacre some 120 inhabitants in village of
Deir Yassin, western suburb of Jerusalem and three miles from Castel. 
April 12: General Zionist Council decides to establish independent Jewish state in Palestine on May 16th. 
April 13 - 20: Operation Har'el under Plan Dalet launched at conclusion of Operation Nachshon. Villages along Jerusalem road attacked and demolished. 
All subsequent Haganah operations until May 15th undertaken within framework of Plan Dalet. 
April 16: British evacuate town of Safed. 
April 17: Security Council resolution calls for military and political truce. 
Haganah starts offensive against town of Safed. 
April 20: US submits
Palestine trusteeship plan to UN. 
April 21: British suddenly evacuate residential quarters of Haifa. 
April 22: Haganah launches Operation Misparayim to attack and occupy Haifa.
Resistance of local Palestinian militia in Haifa collapses. 
Haifa's Palestinian population flees under combined shelling and ground offensives. 
April 25 - 31: Launching of Operation Chametz to conquer Jaffa, Haganah attacks suburban villages of Tell Rish, Yazur and Salameh.
April 26: Lauching Operation Yevussi for conquest of whole of Jerusalem; Haganah attacks Palestinian residential quarter of Sheikh Jarrah in East Jerusalem, cutting off the city from north, but are forced to hand it over to the British. Haganah's attempt at cutting off Jerusalem from Jericho fails.
April 27: Haganah announces coordination of plans with Irgun. 
April 28 - 30: Palestinian ALA unit under Michel Issa succeeds in fighting its way into
Jaffa in order to break Haganah siege. 
April 30: All Palestinian quarters in West Jerusalem occupied by Haganah and residents driven out. 
May 1:
Lebanon and Syria decide to send troops to Palestine at end of Mandate on May 15th. 
May 2:
Iraq dispatches troops to town of Mafraq, in Transjordan, en route to Palestine after May 15th. Three planeloads of arms for Haganah arrive from France
May 3: Between 175,000 and 200,000 Palestinian refugees are reported to have fled from areas taken by Zionists. 
Jewish colonists from Gush Etzion, south of
Jerusalem, ambush traffic on road to city. 
May 4: Unit of Transjordan Arab Legion, operating in Palestine under British command, shells Gush Etzion in retaliation for ambush. British announces it is studying transitional trusteeship regime for
Palestine to take effect at end of Mandate. 
May 5: ALA unit under Michel Issa withdraws from Jaffa, ending city's resistance. 
May 10: Haganah enters Jaffa. 
May 11 - 12: Haganah captures Safed and surrounding villages. 
May 12: State of emergency declared in all Arab countries and able-bodied Palestinian men barred entry to them. 
Egyptian parliament decides to send troops to Palestine at end of Mandate. 
May 12 - 14: Arrival of second and third Czech arms consignments for Haganah. 
May 13: Arab Legion, ALA and local militia attack and capture Jewish settlements of Etzion bloc, retaliating for attacks on Hebron road. 
Jaffa formally surrenders to Haganah.
May 14: State of Israel proclaimed in Tel Aviv at 4pm. 
Haganah launches Operation Schfifon for capture of Old City of Jerusalem. 
May 15: British Mandate ends. 
Declaration of State of Israel comes into effect.
President Truman recognizes State of Israel. First Egyptian troops cross border into Palestine and attack colonies of Kfar Darom and Nirim in Negev
.
Three Transjordanian Arab Legion brigades cross
Jordan River into Palestine. 
Lebanese troops retake Lebanese villages of Malkiya and Qadas (on Lebanese border), attacked and captured earlier by Haganah.
May 17: Haganah captures
Acre
May 18: Syrian troops retake Palestinian town of Samakh, south of
Lake Tiberias, and capture Zionist colonies of Shaar Hagolan and Masada
Arab Legion units reach Latrun and consolidate blockade of coastal road to Jewish quarters in
Jerusalem. 
May 19: Haganah breaks into Old City of Jerusalem. Arab Legion comes to the rescue of Old
City
May 20: UN Security Council appoints Count Folke Bernadotte as its mediator in Palestine.
May 22: Security Council resolution calls for cease-fire. 
June 11 - July 8: First truce. 
June 28 - 29: Count Bernadotte suggests economic, military and political union of Transjordan and Palestine containing Arab and Jewish states: Negev and central Palestine to go to Arabs, Western Galilee to Jews, Jerusalem to be part of Arab state with administrative autonomy to Jews, Haifa and Jaffa to be free ports and Lydda free airport. Rejected by both sides. 
July 7: Security Council calls for prolongation of truce. 
July 15: Security Council resolution calls on governments and authorities concerned to issue indefinite cease-fire orders to their forces in Palestine to take effect within three weeks. 
July 18 - October 15: Second truce. 
September 16: Report by UN mediator Count Bernadotte proposed new partition of Palestine: Arab state to be annexed to Transjordan and to include Negev
, al-Ramla and Lydda; Jewish state in all of Galilee; internationalization of Jerusalem; return or compensation of refugees. Rejected by Arab League and Israel.
September 17: Count Bernadotte murdered in
Jerusalem by Stern Gang.
Replaced by his American deputy Ralph Bunche. 
November 4: UN Security Council resolution calls for withdrawal of forces to positions occupied prior to October 14 and establishment of permanent truce lines. 
November 1948 - mid 1949: IDF expels inhabitants from villages 5-15 km inside Lebanese border, followed by expulsions from other Galilee
villages. 
December 22 -
January 6, 1949: Operation Horev launched to drive Egyptians out of southern coastal strip and Negev
Israeli troops move into Sinai until British pressure forces withdrawal. 
December 27: IDF Alexandroni brigade's attack on isolated Egyptian forces in Faluja pocket is repulsed


1949

February 24: Israeli-Egyptian armistice:  Egypt keeps coastal strip Gaza-Rafah and evacuates Faluja pocket.
End of February: IDF units intimidate 2-3,000 villagers into leaving Faluja pocket in violation of Israeli-Egyptian Armistice Agreement.
March:  IDF Negev and Golani brigades complete occupation of Negev
as far as Umm Rashrash/Eilat.
March 23: Israeli-Lebanese Armistice: Frontier of Mandate Palestine accepted;
Israel withdraws from most of Lebanese territory.
April 3: Israeli-Jordanian Armistice: Jordan takes over Iraqi-held Nablus-Jenin-Tulkarem triangle but is forced to cede area around Wadi 'Ara; Israel controls Chadera-Afula road; existing status quo in Jerusalem accepted by IDF and Arab Legion.
July 20: Syrian-Israeli Armistice: demilitarized zones established around 'En Gev and Dardara (including Mishmar ha-Yarden).


 

 

Survivors’ Testimonies
 

 

 



Destroyed Villages

 

"Jewish villages were built in the place of Arab villages. You do not even know the names of these Arab villages, and I do not blame you because geography books no longer exist, not only do the books not exist, the Arab villages are not there either Nahlal arose in the place of Mahlul; Kibbbutz Gvat in the place of Jibta; Kibbutz Sarid in the place of Huneifis; and Kefar Yehushu'a in the place of Tal al- Shuman. There is not one single place built in this country that did not have a former Arab Population."

Moshe Dayan, Address to the Technion, Haifa ( as quated in Ha'aretz, 4 April 1969)

 

"By the end of the 1948 war, hundreds of entire villages had not only been depopulated but obliterated, their houses blown up or bulldozed. While many of the sites are difficult of access, to this day the observant traveler of Israeli roads and highways can see traces of their presence that would escape the notice of the casual passerby: a fenced-in area, often surmounting a gentle hill, of olive and other fruit trees left untended, of cactus hedges and domesticated plants run wild. Now and then a few crumbled houses are left standing, a neglected mosque or church, collapsing walls along the ghost of a village lane, but in the vast majority of  cases, all that remains is a scattering of stones and rubble across a forgotten landscape."

W. Khalidi, All That Remains

 


This Section contains the list of destroyed & depopulated villages in 1948-49.
 

1) The District of Acre
2) The District of Baysan
3) The District of Beersheba
4) The District of Gaza
5) The District of Haifa
6) The District of Hebron
7) The District of Jaffa 
8) The District of Jerusalem
9) The District of Jinin 
10) The District of Nazareth
11) The District of Al-Ramla
12) The District of Safad
13) The District of Tiberias
14) The District of Tulkarm

 


Bibliography

 


- Ateek, Naim Stifan.
Justice and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. Orbis Books, New York 1989.

- Flapan, Simha. The Birth of Israel: Myth and Realities, Pantheon Books, New York, 1987

- Graham-Brown, Sarah. Palestinians and Their Society, 1880 - 1946 London: Quartet 1980.

- Khalidi, Rashid. Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness Columbia University Press: New York, 1997.

- Khalidi, Walid: All That Remains:The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Institute for Palestine Studies Washington, D.C., 1992

- Khalidi, Walid: Before Their Diaspora,Institute for Palestine Studies Washington, D.C., 1991

- Morris, Benny. The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem 1947-1949.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

- Morris, Benny. 1948 and After: Israel and the Palestinian, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990.

- Nijim, Basheer K. and Bishara Muammar. Toward the De-Arabization of Palestine / Israel 1945-1977. Published under the Auspices of the Jerusalem Fund for Education and Community Development. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall / Hunt Publishing Company, 1984.

-Pappe, Ilan, The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947-1951, I.B. Tauris, Londres, 1992

- Rantissi, Audeh: Blessed are the Peacemakers. Eagle Publishing House, Guildford, 1991

- Said, Edward W. The Question of Palestine. Vintage Books: New York 1979, 1992.

- Saleh, Abdul Jawad & Walid Mustafa. Palestine: The Collective Destruction of Palestine Villages and Zionist Colonization 1882-1982. Amman and London: Jerusalem Center for Development Studies, 1987.

- Uhlinger, Christoph. Palestinian Localities Destroyed after 1948 St. Sulpice, Switzerland: Association Pour Reconstruire Emmaus, 1987.



 

 

 

 

 

 

Related Links

 

 

Documents

 

1947 - 48 UN Resolutions:

UN Resolution 181
UN Resolution 194

Partition map

Text of the Palestinian People Nakba Appeal, drafted and read by Poet Mahmoud Darwish on May 15th 1998




 

Article

 

Fifty years of dispossession


 



Organizations

 

Dheisheh refugee camp website

Jerusalem Forum

American Committee for Jerusalem

Arab-American anti-discrimination Ctte

The Alternative Information Center

Birzeit University's Center for Research & Documentation

Inaash al Usra Society

 

 

 

 

Memorials


Deir Yassin Remembered

City of Jaffa

Land Day

September 1996 martyrs

 

 

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