Lie -- Rewriting History
--- From the Institute for
Public Accuracy (IPA) ---
25, 2003 ---
Republicans and Democrats like to refer to the reluctance of the U.S. to use
military force. Examples:
nation is very reluctant to use military force.... Military action is the very
last resort for us." -- George W. Bush,
Gephardt approved a Bush-Cheney policy where, for the first time in American
history, we commit to war before exhausting our efforts to commit to peace." --
Howard Dean Campaign Statement,
just a few of the facts about U.S. foreign policy that contradict such claims:
In 1962, while trying to
show that there were precedents for the use of armed force against Cuba,
Secretary of State Dean Rusk produced for a Senate committee a list titled
"Instances of the Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad 1798-1945." It
listed 103 interventions between 1798 and 1895 alone.
response to the Mexican ambassador to the UN who had said that the U.S. regards
Mexico as a second-class country, Secretary of State Colin Powell remarked
on November 12, 2003: “We never, ever, in any way would treat Mexico as some
backyard or as a second-class nation. We have too much of a history that we
have gone through together.” About Powell’s response, historian Howard Zinn
noted: “That history includes invading Mexico, 1846-48, and taking half of
its territory, bombarding the Mexican coast in 1914, killing several hundred
Mexicans, and a long history of subordinating Mexican interests to our own.”
Adolfo Aguilar Zinser, the Mexican ambassador who made the remarks which prompted
Colin Powell’s response, was compelled to resign.
The United States
invaded Cuba in 1898 -- expelling Spain, installing a U.S. military base and
keeping Cuba as an economic "protectorate" until 1933.
In the Philippines,
1898-1908, the U.S. waged war to suppress the independence movement, killing
probably 600,000 Filipinos and establishing the Philippines as a U.S. colony
until 1946. [Speaking before the Philippine National Congress, President Bush
said on October 18: "America is proud of its part in the great story of the
Filipino people. Together our soldiers liberated the Philippines from colonial
occupation: Nicaragua (1912-33); Haiti (1915-34); Dominican Republic
and bombing from 1960-1975; Laos and Cambodia also massively bombed.
Lebanon bombed, 1983-84;
Grenada invaded, 1983; Libya bombed, 1986; Panama invaded, 1989.
following are available for interviews:
A widely read historian who has authored numerous books including A People's
History of the United States and Terrorism and War, Zinn said today: "Instances
of the U.S. government spurning peace efforts and going to war include the
Korean War, the Vietnam War, the first Gulf War, the bombing of Afghanistan...."
Grossman is assistant professor of geography at the University of Wisconsin-Eau
Claire and author of the article "From Wounded Knee to Iraq: A Century of U.S.
For more information, contact at the Institute for Public Accuracy:
Sam Husseini, (202) 347-0020; or David Zupan, (541) 484-9167